- The most important ore of copper for over five thousand years.
Gifts That RockGifts That Rock
- What are the most popular gift items in the Geology.com store?
- Rocks that were once parts of planets or large asteroids.
Google Earth - FreeFree Google Earth
software allows you to browse seamless world satellite images. Free.
Plate TectonicsPlate Tectonics
- Articles and maps about plate tectonics and the interior of Earth.
- Colorful images and articles about diamonds and colored stones.
- Learn about the properties of diamond, its many uses, and diamond discoveries.
Spatter ConesSpatter Cones
are small, steep, volcanic cones built of welded basaltic lava.
is a metal used in coins, electronics, pipes, wiring, motors, alloys and many other products.
- Articles about volcanoes, volcanic hazards and eruptions past and present.
Debris FlowsDebris Flows
are moving masses of loose mud, sand, soil, rock and water.
Uses of MarbleThe Uses of Marble
are numerous and diverse. You will be surprised by how it is used.
is a metamorphic mineral and a strongly pleochroic gem material.
- Galleries of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock photos with descriptions.
Rare Earth ElementsRare Earths
- Special materials used in electronics, defense, medical & many other products.
is metamorphic rock formed when sandstone is subjected to heat and pressure.
Crater of DiamondsCrater of Diamonds
- The only diamond mine in the world where you can be the miner.
Rock and Mineral KitsRock & Mineral Kits
The best way to learn about rocks and minerals is with specimens!
Bear AttacksBear Attacks
- Knowing how to react to a bear encounter or attack could save your life.
is a byproduct of the natural gas industry. Its most important use is in MRI.
Hardness PicksHardness Picks
- Test for hardness with precise and easy-to-use hardness picks.
Pyroxene MineralsPyroxene Minerals
are a group of chain silicate minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks.
Types of MapsTypes of Maps
- Explore some of the most popular types of maps that have been made.
Mineral LusterWhat Is Luster?
Luster is the light-reflecting characteristics of a mineral specimen.
Phytoplankton BloomsPhytoplankton Blooms
are caused by an explosive growth rate of plankton in surface waters.
Crystal HabitCrystal Habit
is the external shape displayed by a crystal or an aggregate of crystals.
is a diverse material. This gallery includes photos of sand from around the world.
- Descriptions, photos, articles, properties and uses for common minerals.
is the primary ore of zirconium and a gemstone that is available in many colors.
Mineral HardnessMohs Hardness Scale
is a set of reference minerals used for classroom hardness testing.
Largest HurricanesLargest Hurricanes
Are they determined by wind speed, value of damage, most deaths?
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Map of the OceansMap of the Oceans
- showing the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Southern Oceans.
- the volcanic rock that cools so quickly that it becomes a natural glass.
Fool*s GoldFool*s Gold
is a name used for pyrite when its brassy color fools people looking for gold.
- A porous limestone composed almost entirely of fossil debris.
Ruby and SapphireRuby and Sapphire
are the 2nd and 3rd most popular colored stones in the United States.
Blue FlamesBlue Flames
and the largest highly acidic lake in the world at Kawah Ijen Volcano.
Tallest TsunamiTallest Tsunami
- A wave with a run-up height of 1720 feet occurred in Lituya Bay, Alaska.
The Acid TestThe Acid Test
- Geologists use dilute hydrochloric acid to identify carbonate minerals.
OpalsPictures of Opal
- A collection of different types of opal from all around the world and Mars too!
Mount EtnaMount Etna
- The most active volcano in Europe continues an eruption that started in 2001.
Rock TumblersRock Tumblers
- All about rock tumblers and rock tumbling. Read before you buy a tumbler.
- the only important ore of mercury. Used in pigments until its toxicity was realized.
Teacher ResourcesTeacher Resources
- K-12 resources for teaching about earth science.
are gems assigned to the month of a person*s birth. They are popular gifts in the U.S.
- The intrusive igneous rock that underlies continents and countertops.
is a feldspar mineral that sometimes exhibits an iridescent play-of-color.
is an orange to pink gemstone, a variety of beryl, that is growing rapidly in popularity.
Mars MeteoritesMars Meteorites
Mars rovers have found dozens of meteorites while exploring the red planet.
are amorphous naturally-occurring inorganic solids that lack crystallinity.
Watch out for Ticks!Ticks
are a problem for geologists in some areas. Learn to recognize and avoid them.
US Diamond MinesUS Diamond Mines
- Did you know that diamonds have been mined in the United States?
Colored DiamondsColored Diamonds
are diamonds with a noticeable body color. They can sell for over $1M/carat.
What Is The Moho?What Is The Moho?
The Mohorovicic Discontinuity is the mantle/crust boundary.
is a metamorphic rock with properties that make it suitable for a variety of projects.
is the most popular green gemstone in the United States and most of the world.
Fluorescent MineralsFluorescent Minerals
and rocks glow with spectacular colors under ultraviolet light.
What is Geology?What is Geology?
The study of Earth materials, structures, processes and life over time.
is the third hardest mineral. It is also the mineral of ruby and sapphire.
- The most important ore of iron. A source of mineral pigment since prehistory.
Underwater VolcanoHawaii*s Next Island
could be growing in the Pacific Ocean right now. Its name is Lo*ihi.
- a manganese mineral used as an ore, a pink gem and an ornamental stone.
is a purple silicate mineral, found only in Russia, used as a gem material.
Geology BooksGeology Books
- A variety of books for reference, field trips, reading and more.
Hand LensHand Lens
A 10-power folding magnifier in a metal case. A frequently used lab and field tool.
Ethiopian OpalEthiopian Opal
- The new opal heavyweight that might give Australia a run.
American GemstonesMined in America
- Small mines in the United States produce a diversity of beautiful gemstones.
- The primary ore of titanium and source of most titanium dioxide.
Grape AgateGrape Agate
is a popular mineral specimen with the color and the shape of a bunch of grapes.
Rock SaltRock Salt
is a sedimentary rock composed of the mineral halite. It has many uses!
Mineral RightsMineral Rights
- Who owns the minerals under your land? Who wants to buy them?
- an extremely colorful mineral and gem material.
Ant Hill GarnetsAnt Hill Garnets
- tiny gems that ants haul to the surface and discard on their anthill. Honest!
Herkimer DiamondsHerkimer Diamonds
Doubly-terminated quartz crystals used as specimens and gems.
Waterproof PaperWaterproof Paper
- Don't take chances with your field notes and maps. Use waterproof paper.
Lapis LazuliLapis Lazuli
- a metamorphic rock and the most popular blue opaque gemstone in history.
look like ordinary rocks on the outside but can be spectacular inside!
June 6th 1912Novarupta
- The most powerful volcanic eruption of the 20th century occurred in the U.S.A.
DeLorme AtlasTopo Maps
- The DeLorme Atlas is an entire state of topo maps in one convenient book.
100+ Gemstones100+ Gems
- Photos of over 100 beautiful gems ranging from the popular to the obscure.
Lightning Strikes MapLightning Strikes Map
by NASA shows the worldwide distribution of lightning activity.
Tallest WaterfallAngel Falls
in Venezuela is the tallest waterfall in the world - it is 3212 feet tall.
Field CoursesField Courses
- Over 80 field courses for undergraduate geology students.
Cave of the HandsCave of the Hands
is a cave where ancient people painted hands about 9000 years ago.
is the transparent variety of quartz with a yellow to orange to reddish color.
is a chromite host rock, a source of diamonds and a possible carbon dioxide sink.
Rocks on MarsRocks on Mars
Many of the rocks found on Mars are not very different from Earth rocks.
Expansive SoilExpansive Soil
causes more damage than floods, hurricanes & tornadoes combined.
Tallest MountainTallest Mountain
- Everest has rivals in tallness, altitude and distance to the center of Earth.
- The rock that has quickly transformed the oil and gas industry.
UV Mineral LampPortable UV Lamp
- Short and long wave UV for fluorescent mineral viewing.
- Abundant in Earth*s mantle. A constituent of meteorites. The gem peridot.
- Used as an ore of copper, a pigment, ornamental stone and gem material.
What is a Maar?What is a Maar?
The second most common volcanic landscape feature on Earth.
Homeowners InsuranceHomeowners Insurance
might not cover earthquake, hurricane and other geohazard damage.
was unknown until a few decades ago but it has erupted into wide popularity.
Largest VolcanoesLargest Volcano
- That title is shared by Tamu Massif, Mauna Kea and Ojos del Salado.
is a variety of limestone formed from fine-grained marine sediment known as ooze.
Don*t Go To JailKnow the Rules
before removing rocks, fossils or minerals from public or private property.
Uses of TalcTalc
is a soft mineral used in cosmetics, paper, paint, ceramics and many other products.
Storm SurgeStorm Surge
can be the most damaging and deadly aspect of a hurricane.
What is a Geyser?What is a Geyser?
Photos and information about geysers in many parts of the world.
Mount VesuviusMount Vesuvius
- geology, history, maps, facts and more about the Vesuvius eruptions.
Petrified WoodPetrified Wood
is a fossil that forms when silica replaces and infills the cavities of wood.
Cinder ConesCinder Cones
are the smallest, simplest, and most common type of volcano.